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Disinfection effect of benzalkonium chloride solution on novel coronavirus

Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2020-03-04      Origin: Site

Disinfection effect of benzalkonium chloride solution on novel coronavirus

The novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic is still worrying the Chinese. The latest news says that the vaccine may be completed within 18 months, so that during the period before the vaccine is released, we should do a good job of self protection, which is the best way to prevent the expansion of the number of cases and to fight against the virus.

The novel coronavirus is a novel coronavirus of beta genus with envelop and round or oval shape. Its diameter is 60-140nm. The genetic characteristics of SARS CoV and mersr cov were significantly different. At present, the homology with bat-sl-covzc45 is more than 85%. In vitro, 2019-ncov can be found in human respiratory epithelial cells in 96 hours, while in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cell lines, it takes about 6 days. It is a kind of acute infectious pneumonia, the initial symptoms of patients are fever, dry cough, fatigue, and gradually develop into severe acute respiratory syndrome, or even death.


At present, there is no specific treatment drug, so prevention of infection is the most critical treatment. The general guideline for novel coronavirus pneumonia is: (1) individuals should maintain hand hygiene: disinfecting hand sanitizers after washing public articles; (2) items and environment should be routinely sterilized: disinfecting bathroom and toilet surfaces at least 1-2 times daily, and recommending chlorine disinfectants and peracetic acid disinfectants.

Many novel coronavirus can be used for disinfection of new coronavirus. According to the newly published "diagnosis and treatment plan for pneumonia of new coronavirus" (trial version fifth), it is clearly pointed out that the virus is sensitive to ultraviolet and heat, and 56, 30 minutes, ethyl ether, 75% ethyl alcohol, chlorine disinfectant, peracetic acid and chloroform can effectively inactivate the virus.

Benzalkonium chloride is a kind of quaternary ammonium salt cationic surfactant, and also a kind of disinfectant containing chlorine. It is composed of dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride homologues substituted by n-alkyl group. Benzalkonium chloride is a bifunctional disinfectant, which can kill bacteria / fungi and virus. In addition, this kind of disinfectant is widely used in skin and environment disinfection because of its low toxicity, small irritation, good water solubility, convenient use and storage. At present, NMPA is annotated, including patches, solution, spray, eye drops, etc.

Pharmacological action of benzalkonium chloride

Benzalkonium chloride solution has been used for coronavirus for a long time in foreign countries, and a large number of domestic and foreign literatures have confirmed that benzalkonium chloride has the following pharmacological effects:

1.1 broad spectrum killing pathogenic bacteria: in vitro studies have confirmed that benzalkonium chloride has significant killing effect on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The minimum bactericidal concentration is 0.0125%, the minimum bactericidal concentration is 0.00625%, and the bactericidal rate within 24 hours is 100%.


1.2 broad spectrum fungicidal effect: benzalkonium chloride has significant fungicidal effect on Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and other fungi, the minimum bactericidal concentration is also 0.0125%, and the bactericidal rate within 24 hours is 100%.

1.3 broad spectrum inhibition to kill / inhibit virus: many foreign studies have confirmed that benzalkonium chloride can inhibit SARS, mersr CoV, influenza virus (a, b), parainfluenza virus (psv-1, 2, 3), avian influenza virus (h7n9) in vitro, )Newcastle disease virus, bursal disease virus, adenovirus, HIV virus, HSV-2, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, BK virus, PV, coxsackievirus, Ebola virus, the minimum killing concentration is 0.00125%, and the virus is co cultured with the above viruses for 1-5min. The killing rate of the virus is more than 95%, and the effect is 5min, which can inactivate SARS The replication activity of cov was better than that of sodium hypochlorite (84 disinfectant).

Application status of benzalkonium chloride

Benzalkonium chloride was used to disinfect the skin and mucous membrane: a clinical study of 378 patients with dog bite showed that the incidence of infection was lower when benzalkonium chloride was used to disinfect the dog bite wounds than when iodophor solution was used (7.43% vs 14.21%, P = 0.021); another study of 60 puerperal patients with perineum side cutting showed that when benzalkonium chloride was used to wash the vulva, compared with Iodophor + alcohol, bacteria were used to clean the vulva The removal rate was higher (80% vs 46.6%, P < 0.05). Another foreign study on the reduction of skin instantaneous Staphylococcus aureus by benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer showed that compared with 70% alcohol hand sanitizer, the number of instantaneous Staphylococcus aureus at fingertips of medical staff using benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer for one week decreased significantly. Furthermore, benzalkonium chloride is better than iodophor and alcohol in skin disinfection, and is more suitable for hand washing disinfection in current epidemic prevention environment.


Benzalkonium chloride was used for operation and wound disinfection: 60 cases of open fractures were included in the study. Compared with the traditional 3% hydrogen peroxide and povidone iodine, the infection rate was lower (3.33% vs 16.67%, P < 0.05), and the pain stimulation during the washing process was less. A clinical study of 30 burn patients showed that one side of the wound was washed with benzalkonium chloride and the other side was washed with 0.5% Iodophor. The 7-day healing rates of the two groups were: benzalkonium chloride group (78.4 ± 6.0)%, iodophor group (65.8 ± 6.9)%, with statistical difference (P < 0.05). Benzalkonium chloride is used for surgical wound surface, with lower infection rate, higher healing quality, less pain stimulation and milder.


Benzalkonium chloride is used for disinfection of articles: A Study on the biofilm formation of microorganisms extracted from fresh agricultural products (lettuce, lettuce and cucumber) by benzalkonium chloride on stainless steel test pieces shows that benzalkonium chloride treatment with 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0g/l can promote the significant changes of biofilm formation and reduce the formation of bacterial biofilm. A study from the Japanese Institute of chemical therapy suggested that after benzalkonium chloride treatment, SARS, mersr CoV, influenza virus (a, b), parainfluenza virus (psv-1, 2, 3), avian influenza virus (h7n9, etc.) were all significantly inactivated, and no harm was found in human beings, which was significantly superior to sodium hypochlorite (84 disinfectant), so it was strongly recommended for inactivation of vaccine production equipment.


Benzalkonium chloride for environmental disinfection: an experimental study on the use of benzalkonium chloride to inhibit microbial fouling in the regeneration water source heat pump system, using different mass fractions of fungicide benzalkonium chloride to soak the fouling 10 times a day The results showed that benzalkonium chloride could inhibit microbial fouling, kill most of the bacterial cells in the fouling, and the effect increased with the increase of its mass fraction. A study from Brussels hospital in Paris showed that after 5 minutes of benzalkonium chloride treatment, the inactivation rate of HSV-2, CMV, RSV and adv virus was over 95%, and the minimum inactivation concentration was 0.0025%. After 1 minute of treatment, the inactivation rate of Env, BKV and adv virus was over 99%.


Safety evaluation of benzalkonium chloride disinfection solution

Colorless, fragrant and non irritating: benzalkonium chloride is a colorless clear liquid, without precipitation, with a clear and fragrant smell, but extremely bitter. Shaking can produce a large number of bubbles, and less than 0.1% of the concentration is not irritating to the skin, so it can be used for surgical trauma and skin mucous membrane disinfection in clinic.

Inert, nonflammable, nonvolatile, good stability: benzalkonium chloride molecular formula c17h30cln, boiling point > 100 ° C / 760mmhg, soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol. It's fragrant. It is light resistant, pressure resistant, heat-resistant and non-volatile, so it will not cause combustion risk in environmental disinfection, goods disinfection and skin disinfection. In addition, benzalkonium chloride belongs to quaternary ammonium salt, and its components are stable and less oxidized. It can be maintained for 4-5h after a spray in public places, and can kill / inhibit the virus continuously.

Good safety, no teratogenic and carcinogenic toxicity, available for pregnant women and newborns: A Study on acute toxicity and mutagenicity of benzalkonium chloride disinfectant shows that acute oral toxicity test: LD50 of male mice is 3.16) g / kgbw is basically nontoxic, and the micronucleus test result of polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow is negative; the test result of sperm malformation in mice is negative, that is, benzalkonium chloride has no mutagenic risk. Another long-term study shows that benzalkonium chloride is widely used in disinfectants, preservatives, disinfectants and other products. The concentration of benzalkonium chloride in hair conditioner produced as cosmetics or personal products in Korea is 0.5-2%. It was found that benzalkonium chloride had no genotoxicity and no tumorigenic potential. Another multicenter trial confirmed that benzalkonium chloride disinfection was used to prevent the vertical transmission of HIV, and 108 women were included in the study. The results showed that benzalkonium chloride vaginal disinfection method was feasible, well tolerated and no adverse events occurred to newborns. Some domestic scholars have shown that benzalkonium chloride is used to assist the treatment of cellulitis in children's mouth and floor and red buttocks in infants. The results show that it is safe for infants and children in the treatment process without adverse reactions.

Comparison of application scenarios of common disinfectants

It can be seen from the above table that benzalkonium chloride solution has a wide range of application, which can be used for skin and mucous membrane disinfection, surgical wound disinfection, article disinfection, public environment disinfection. Its disinfection effect is better than 75% alcohol, iodophor, and 84 disinfection solution for virus inactivation.

In addition, benzalkonium chloride is colorless, fragrant and non irritating, which can be used for surgical trauma and disinfection of skin and mucous membrane. Benzalkonium chloride is inert, nonflammable, nonvolatile, stable and does not lead to combustion risk. Its ingredients are stable and less oxidized. It can last for 4-5h after spraying in public places, and can kill / inhibit the virus continuously.

In addition, the study of acute toxicity and long-term toxicity showed that benzalkonium chloride was basically non-toxic and had no teratogenic and carcinogenic toxicity. The multicenter study indicated that benzalkonium chloride was safe for pregnant women and infants. To sum up, benzalkonium chloride solution is a highly effective and safe dual-function disinfectant, which can be used in multiple scenarios.

Usage of benzalkonium chloride solution

Here we remind you to choose good disinfection products for disinfection, but do not forget to wash your hands frequently! Many people think that alcohol disinfection is enough. In fact, when there is clear water, hand washing is the best choice. You can use soap or hand sanitizer to wash your hands.

The novel coronavirus is terrible, but as long as we do it properly, pay attention to personal hygiene, wash hands frequently, wear masks, protect ourselves, prevent viruses from "empty loopholes", and we can maximize the safety of ourselves, our families and people around us. It is expected that one day, the number of patients with the epidemic will be zero, and the country will live a happy and safe year 2020 together with the people.Niranbio will always be with you.Visit to learn more ahout the knowledge about food ingredients and chemicals.



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